Understanding Breast Cancer

Breast Anatomy and Cancer Development

Each breast contains 15-20 glands called lobes, where milk is produced. Each lobe consists of a branching structure made up of lobules and acini (alveoli). The acini are lined by a single layer of milk-secreting epithelial cells. Read More

Exposure to Estrogens and Breast Cancer

The duration or intensity of a women’s exposure to endogenous or exogenous estrogens are the major risk factors for breast cancer. Early menarche and or late menopause increase breast cancer risk. Read More

Local Production of Estrogen in Breast Cancer

The observation the 17b-estradiol (E2) levels are 10-fold higher in breast carcinoma tissue compared to plasma supports the role for intratumoral estrogen synthesis. Read More

Breast Density and the Risk of Breast Cancer

Among all other risk factors, breast density is the most important predictor of breast cancer risk. Increase in breast cancer risk from lowest to highest breast density category is on the order of fivefold depending on the age of the patient, Read More

Obesity, Aromatase and Breast Cancer Risk.

Approximately two-thirds of adult US women have excess body fat: 36% are obese with a body mass index (BMI) of more than 30, whereas another one-third are overweight (BMI: 25–29). Read More

Relationship between Exogenous Hormones (HRT), Breast Density and Cancer Risk

HRT, Hormone Replacement Therapy, (estrogen and a progestogen) slows normal breast involution and causes and increase in mammographic density.1-3The increase in density is most commonly diffuse but may be focal or multifocal. Read More

Prevention of Breast Cancer

Both raloxifene and tamoxifen are approved for the prevention of breast cancer in the United States. Evidence supporting anti-estrogens for the prevention of breast cancer is substantial. Read More

Progesterone and Breast Cancer

Clinicians have long observed that breast cancer patients who are both estrogen receptor (ER) positive and progesterone receptor (PR) positive have better clinical outcomes. Read More